This card's name is a Latinized version of the Welsh name, Caledfwlch. After the legend of King Arthur was introduced into French literature, "Caliburn" was translated to "Excalibur".
The fact that this card and Noble Arms - Excaliburn are different cards may stem from the fact that in the stories, the sword in the stone is not Excalibur, but merely his father's sword to serve as proof of his being Uther's son.
Even though there are golden lines extending from the hilt of the sword in the artwork of "Noble Knight Artorigus", both swords have the same hilt and are embedded in the same rock formation. This is used to reveal each side of this sword.
This sword is actually the exact same as in the artwork of "Noble Knight Artorigus", just drawn at a different angle and in more detail. The gold lines are still there, but are obscured by the blue lines of light on the blade of the sword.